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Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution















Russn Rvoluton



Only twc n hstory hs th workng clss tkn stt powr: n th Prs Commun of 1871 nd th Russn Rvoluton of 1917. Th Prs Commun dmonstrtd th hrosm of th workng clss, ts cpcty to sz stt powr nd to strt, howvr hltngly, to rshp socty.

But th ndustrl workng clss of Prs ws tny, mployd mnly n smll workshops, wthout prty to ld t, nd wthout clr thory to gud t. Th Russn Rvoluton brought to powr much mor mtur, bttr orgnsd nd poltclly conscous workng clss. Nvr bfor hd th workng clss bcom th rulng clss of grt country, fghtng tncously nd hroclly gnst clss nms t hom nd gnst nvdng forgn rms. Nvr bfor hd such rdcl chngs n socl structur bn crrd out n so short tm. Sm-fudl socl rltons of lnd ownrshp wr swpt wy fr mor rdclly thn vn n th Frnch Rvoluton of 1789. Prctclly ll th fctors, mns nd othr vlubl nturl rsourcs of th country wr tkn ovr by th workrs stt.

numbr of dcrs of world hstorcl mportnc wr ssud by th nwly-stblshd workrs govrnmnt: th dcr on lnd, whch trnsfrrd th proprty of th lndlords to th mllons of psnts; th dcr on workrs control ovr producton, whch md th workrs th mstrs n th fctors; th dcr on slf-dtrmnton, whch gv full frdom to th opprssd ntons of Russ; th dcrs tht swpt wy th old mrrg nd dvorc lws. ccordng to ths dcrs only cvl mrrg ws to b rcognsd by th stt; chldrn born out of wdlock wr to b gvn th sm rghts s thos born n mrrg; dvorc ws to b hd for th skng by thr spous. Th nw lws mphssd th full qulty of mn nd womn. dultry nd homosxulty wr droppd from th crmnl cod.

Th Russn workng clss fcd xtrm obstcls on ts wy. Th Frnch Rvoluton of 1789 hd tkn plc n country tht t th tm hd chvd th hghst lvl of conomc nd culturl dvlopmnt n th world, wth th possbl xcpton of nglnd. Russ n 1917 ws on of th most bckwrd countrs n urop. nd from th outst th Russn bourgos rsortd to hrsh countr-rvolutonry msurs, cllng on th support of world cptlsm. Th Russn Wht rms wr dd by ho fwr thn fourtn forgn xpdtonry forcs, ncludng thos of Brtn, Frnc, th Untd Stts, Jpn, Grmny, tly nd Turky.

Russ mrgd from th cvl wr n stt of conomc collps unprllld n th hstory of mnknd, s on conomc hstorn of th prod put t. ndustrl producton ws bout on ffth of th lvl t hd bn bfor th outbrk of th Frst World Wr n 1914. Th populton of th cts hd shrunk. Th most rvolutonry workrs hd jond th Rd rmy n dfnc of th rvoluton. Othrs, drvn by lck of food nd ful, hd rturnd to th psnt vllgs. Btwn th nd of 1918 nd th nd of 1920 pdmcs, hungr nd cold hd klld nn mllon Russns (th wr s whol hd clmd four mllon vctms).

From th frst dy Lnn nd Trotsky hd md t clr tht th survvl of workrs powr n Russ would dpnd on th vctory of rvoluton lswhr n th world. Th Russn rvoluton ws only th bgnnng of th world soclst rvoluton. Lnn told th Thrd Congrss of Sovts on 11 Jnury 1918: Th fnl vctory of soclsm n sngl country s of cours mpossbl. Our contngnt of workrs nd psnts whch s upholdng Sovt powr s on of th contngnts of th grt world rmy. t s th bsolut truth tht wthout Grmn rvoluton w r doomd, h sd short whl ltr.

Th Octobr rvoluton n Russ dd fnd n cho lswhr - wth rvolutons n Grmny, ustr nd Hungry sprdng rvolutonry wvs throughout urop. Th tny Communst groups of 1919 grw nto mss workng-clss prts. For whl th futur hung n th blnc. But th ldrshps of ths nw Communst Prts wr young nd nxprncd, nd unbl to ovrcom th countr-rvolutonry ctvts of th old-stblshd socl-dmocrtc prts. Th rvolutons n urop wr dftd. Russ rmnd soltd.

Th quston tht soclsts who look bck to th hop rd nsprton offrd by th rvoluton of 1917 hv to nswr s ths: how ws t tht ths rvoluton, whch cm closr to workng-clss slf-mncpton thn vr bfor, ws followd by th rs of th rulng burucrcy hdd by Stln? t ws to nswr ths quston tht Chrs Hrmn wrot hs rtcl Russ: How th rvoluton ws lost, frst publshd n 1967 nd rprntd hr.


How th rvoluton ws lost

TH RVOLUTON OF 1917 gv control of mjor country to workrs govrnmnt for th frst tm n hstory. To mllons throughout world lockd n svg nd futl wr, t offrd nw hop. n th prod ftrwrds popl vrywhr turnd-from th grm ltrntvs of dclnng cptlsm - unmploymnt, povrty, fscst brbrty, th thrt of nw wrs - to plc thr hops for th futur n th rgm tht th Sovts (councls of ordnry workng mn nd womn) hd put nto powr n Russ.

Yt tody th govrnmnt of th USSR nsprs support from fw on th lft. ts brutl supprsson of th Hungrn rvoluton n 1956 turnd thousnds of mltnts gnst t. Whn t rptd - lbt n lss bloody form, such n ct of ggrsson gnst soclst country n Czchoslovk, vn th offcl Communst Prts turnd gnst t n hlf-hrtd fshon. Mnwhl ts posturng vs-à-vs Chn - from wthdrwng much ndd tchncl d to thrtnng full-scl wr ovr fw brrn bordr rs - hv dsllusond thos who vn tody mng to prs Stln.

Wht dd hppn n th ftful yrs ftr th rvoluton? Wht wnt wrong? Who ws to blm?


Th two rvolutons

Th prod btwn th two rvolutons of Fbrury nd Octobr 1917 ws mouldd by two concurrnt procsss. Th frst occurrd n th towns, nd ws vry rpd growth of workng-clss conscousnss. By th July dys, th ndustrl workrs t lst sm to hv rrvd t n undrstndng of th dffrnt ntrsts of th clsss n th rvoluton. n th countrysd, dffrnt form of clss dffrntton took plc. Ths ws not, s n th cts, btwn proprtd clss - th bourgos - nd clss tht could not vn spr to ndvdul ownrshp of proprty - th workrs. Rthr t ws btwn two proprty-ownng clsss: on th on hnd th lndownrs, on th othr th psnts. Th lttr wr not soclst n ntnton. Thr m ws to sz th stts of th lndownrs, but to dvd ths up on n ndvdulstc bss. n ths movmnt vn kulks, wlthy frmrs, could prtcpt.

Th rvoluton could not hv tkn plc wthout th smultnous occurrnc of ths two procsss. Wht td thm togthr ws not howvr n dntty of ultmt m. Rthr t ws th fct tht for contngnt hstorcl rsons th ndustrl bourgos could not brk poltclly wth th lrg lndownrs. ts nblty to do ths pushd th psntry (whch ffctvly ncludd th rmy) nd th workrs nto th sm cmp:

n ordr to rls th sovt stt, thr ws rqurd th drwng togthr nd mutul pntrton of two fctors blongng to compltly dffrnt hstorc spcs: psnt wr - tht s movmnt chrctrstc of th dwn of bourgos dvlopmnt - nd proltrn nsurrcton, th movmnt sgnlsng ts dcln.

Th urbn nsurrcton could not hv succdd but for th sympthy of th lrgly psnt rmy. Nor could th psnts hv wgd succssful struggl unlss ld nd wldd togthr by cntrlsd, xtrnl forc. n Russ of 1917 th only possbl such forc ws th orgnsd workng clss. t ws ths blty to drw th psntry bhnd t t th crucl momnt tht md t possbl for th workrs to hold powr n th towns.

Th bourgos nd ts lnd-ownng lls wr xproprtd. Put th clsss whch prtcptd n ths xproprton shrd no smpl long-trm common ntrst. n th towns ws clss whos vry xstnc dpndd upon collctv ctvty; n th countrysd clss whos mmbrs would only unt vn mongst thmslvs momntrly to sz th lnd, but would thn tll t ndvdully. Onc th ct of szur nd dfnc of tht szur ws ovr, only xtrnl nducmnts could bnd thm to ny stt.

Th rvoluton, thn, ws rlly dcttorshp of th workrs ovr othr clsss n th towns - n th mjor towns th rul of th mjorty n Sovts or workrs councls - nd dcttorshp of th towns ovr th country. n th frst prod of th dvson of th stts ths dcttorshp could rly upon psnt support, ndd, ws dfndd by psnt byonts. But wht ws to hppn ftrwrds?

Ths quston hd proccupd th Russn soclsts thmslvs long bfor th rvoluton. Th rlston tht soclst rvoluton n Russ would b hoplssly lost n th psnt mss ws on rson why ll th Mrxsts n Russ (ncludng Lnn, but xcludng Trotsky nd t frst Prvus) hd sn th forthcomng rvoluton s bourgos on. Whn Prvus nd Trotsky frst suggstd tht th rvoluton mght produc soclst govrnmnt, Lnn wrot:

Ths cnnot b, bcus such rvolutonry dcttorshp cn only hv stblty bsd on th grt mjorty of th popl. Th Russn proltrt consttuts now mnorty of th Russn populton.

H mntnd ths vw rght up to 1917. Whn h dd com to ccpt nd fght for th possblty of soclst outcom for th rvoluton, t ws bcus h sw t s on stg n worldwd rvoluton tht would gv th mnorty workng clss n Russ protcton gnst forgn ntrvnton nd d to rconcl th psntry to ts rul. ųght months bfor th Octobr rvoluton h wrot to Swss workrs tht th Russn proltrt cnnot by ts own forcs vctorously complt th soclst rvoluton. Four months ftr th rvoluton (on 7 Mrch 1918) h rptd: Th bsolut truth s tht wthout rvoluton n Grmny w shll prsh.

Th cvl wr

Th frst yrs of sovt rul smd to br out th prspctv of world rvoluton. Th prod 1918-19 ws chrctrsd by socl uphvls unsn snc 1848. n Grmny nd ustr mltry dft ws followd by th dstructon of th monrchy. vrywhr thr ws tlk of Sovts. n Hungry nd Bvr sovt govrnmnts ctully took powr - lthough only brfly. n tly th fctors wr occupd. Yt th hrtg of ffty yrs of grdul dvlopmnt ws not to b rsd so rpdly. Th old Socl-Dmocrtc nd trd unon ldrs movd nto th gp lft by th dscrdtd bourgos prts. Th Communst lft on th othr hnd stll lckd th orgnston to rspond to ths. t ctd whn thr ws no mss support; whn thr ws mss support t fld to ct. vn so th stblston of urop ftr 1919 ws t bst prcrous. n vry uropn country, th socl structur rcvd svr thrts wthn th subsqunt fftn yrs. nd th xprnc of both th Communst Prts nd th workng clss hd put thm nto fr bttr poston to undrstnd wht ws hppnng.

Th Russn Bolshvks dd not, howvr, ntnd to wt upon th rvoluton brod. Th dfnc of th sovt rpublc nd nctmnt to rvoluton brod smd nsprbl. For th tm bng nywy, th tsks t hnd n Russ wr dtrmnd, not by th Bolshvk ldrs, but by th ntrntonl mprlst powrs. Ths hd bgun crusd gnst th sovt rpublc. Th Countr-rvolutonry wht nd forgn rms hd to b drvn bck bfor ny othr qustons could b consdrd. n ordr to do ths, vry rsourc vlbl hd to b utlsd.

By mxtur of populr support, rvolutonry rdour, nd, t tms, t smd, pur wll, th countr-rvolutonry forcs wr drvn out (lthough n th fr st of Russ thy contnud to oprt untl 1924). But th prc pd ws normous.

Ths cnnot b countd n mrly mtrl trms. But n ths trms lon t ws grt. Wht suffrd bov ll ws ndustrl nd grculturl producton. n 1920 th producton of pg ron ws only 3 pr cnt of th pr-wr fgur, of hmp 10 pr cnt, flx 25 pr cnt, cotton 11 pr cnt, bts 15 pr cnt. Ths mpld prvton, hrdshp, fmn. But much mor. Th dslocton of ndustrl producton ws lso th dslocton of th workng clss, whch ws rducd to 43 pr cnt of ts formr numbrs. Th othrs hd rturnd to thr vllgs or wr dd on th bttlfld. n purly quntttv trms, th clss tht hd ld th rvoluton, th clss whos dmocrtc procsss hd consttutd th lvng cor of sovt powr, ws hlvd n mportnc.

n rl trms th stuton ws vn wors. Wht rmnd ws not vn hlf of tht clss, forcd nto collctv cton by th vry ntur of ts lf stuton. ndustrl output ws only 18 pr cnt of th pr-wr fgur; lbour productvty ws only on-thrd of wht t hd bn. To kp lv, workrs could not rly on wht thr collctv product would buy. Mny rsortd to drct brtr of thr products - or vn prts of thr mchns - wth psnts n rturn for food. Not only ws th ldng clss of th rvoluton dcmtd, but th ts lnkng ts mmbrs togthr wr fst dsntgrtng.

Th vry prsonnl n th fctors wr not thos who hd consttutd th cor of th rvolutonry movmnt of 1917. Th most mltnt workrs hd qut nturlly fought most t th front durng th cvl wr, nd suffrd most csults. Thos tht survvd wr ndd not only n th fctors, but s cdrs n th, rmy, or s commssrs to kp th dmnstrtors oprtng th stt mchn. Rw psnts from th countrysd, wthout soclst, trdtons or sprtons, took thr plc.

But wht ws to b th ft of th rvoluton f th clss tht md t csd to xst n ny mnngful sns? Ths ws not problm tht th Bolshvk ldrs could hv forsn. Thy hd lwys sd tht solton of th rvoluton would rsult n ts dstructon by forgn rms nd domstc countr-rvoluton. Wht confrontd thm now ws th succss of countr-rvoluton from brod n dstroyng th clss tht hd ld th rvoluton, whl lvng ntct th stt pprtus bult up by t. Th rvolutonry powr hd survvd; but rdcl chngs wr bng producd n ts ntrnl composton.


From sovt powr to Bolshvk dcttorshp

Th rvolutonry nsttutons of 1917 - bov ll th Sovts - wr orgnclly connctd wth th clss tht hd ld th rvoluton. Btwn th sprtons nd ntntons of thr mmbrs nd thos of th workrs who hd lctd thm, thr could b no gp. Whl th mss supportd th Mnshvk Prty, th Sovts wr Mnshvk; whn th mss bgn to follow th Bolshvks, so dd th Sovts. Th Bolshvk Prty ws mrly th body of coordntd clss-conscous mltnts who could frm polcs nd suggst courss of cton longsd othr such bods, n th Sovts s n th fctors thmslvs. Thr cohrnt vws nd slf-dscpln mnt tht thy could ct to mplmnt polcs ffctvly - but only f th mss of workrs would follow thm.

vn consstnt opponnts of th Bolshvks rcognsd ths. Thr ldng Mnshvk crtc wrot:

Undrstnd, pls, tht bfor us ftr ll s vctorous uprsng of th proltrt - lmost th ntr proltrt supports Lnn nd xpcts ts socl lbrton from th uprsng

Untl th cvl wr ws wll undr wy, ths dmocrtc dlctc of prty nd clss could contnu. Th Bolshvks hld powr s th mjorty prty n th Sovts. But othr prts contnud to xst thr too. Th Mnshvks contnud to oprt lglty nd compt wth th Bolshvks for support untl Jun 1918.

Th dcmton of th workng clss chngd ll ths. Of ncssty th sovt nsttutons took on lf ndpndntly of th clss thy hd rsn from. Thos workrs nd psnts who fought th cvl wr could not govrn thmslvs collctvly from thr plcs n th fctors. Th soclst workrs sprd ovr th lngth nd brdth of th wr zons hd to b orgnsd nd coordntd by cntrlsd govrnmntl pprtus ndpndnt of thr drct control - t lst tmporrly.

t smd to th Bolshvks tht such structur could not b hld togthr unlss t contnd wthn t only thos who whol-hrtdly supportd th rvoluton - tht s, only th Bolshvks.

Th Rght Socl Rvolutonrs wr nstgtors of th countr-rvoluton. Th Lft Socl Rvolutonrs wr wllng to rsort to trror whn thy dsgrd wth govrnmnt polcy. s for th Mnshvks, thr polcy ws on of support for th Bolshvks gnst th countr-rvoluton, wth th dmnd tht thy hnd ovr powr to th Consttunt ssmbly (on of th chf dmnds of th countr-rvoluton). n prctc ths mnt tht th Mnshvk Prty contnd both supportrs nd opponnts of th sovt powr. Mny of ts mmbrs wnt ovr to th sd of th Whts (for xmpl Mnshvk orgnstons n th Volg r wr sympthtc to th countr-rvolutonry Smr govrnmnt, nd on mmbr of th Mnshvk cntrl commtt, vn Msky - ltr Stlns mbssdor - jond t). Th rspons of th Bolshvks ws to llow th prtys mmbrs thr frdom (t lst, most of th tm), but to prvnt thm ctng s n ffctv poltcl forc - for xmpl thy wr llowd no prss ftr Jun 1918 xcpt for thr months n th followng yr.

n ll ths th Bolshvks hd no choc. Thy could not gv up powr just bcus th clss thy rprsntd hd dssolvd tslf whl fghtng to dfnd tht powr, nor could thy tolrt th propgton of ds tht undrmnd th bss of ts powr - prcsly bcus th workng clss tslf no longr xstd s n gncy collctvly orgnsd so s to b bl to dtrmn ts own ntrsts.

Of ncssty th sovt stt of 1917 hd bn rplcd by th sngl-prty stt of 1920 onwrds. Th Sovts tht rmnd wr ncrsngly just front for Bolshvk powr (lthough othr prts, such s th Mnshvks, contnud to oprt n thm s lt s 1920). By 1919, for nstnc, thr wr no lctons to th Moscow Sovt for ovr 18 months.


Kronstdt nd th Nw conomc Polcy

Prdoxclly, th nd of th Cvl Wr dd not llvt ths stuton, but n mny wys ggrvtd t. For wth th nd of th mmdt thrt of countr-rvoluton, th cord tht hd bound togthr th two rvolutonry procsss - workrs powr n th towns nd psnt uprsngs n th country - ws cut. Hvng gnd control ovr th lnd, th psnts lost ntrst n th collctvst rvolutonry dls of Octobr. Thy wr motvtd by ndvdul sprtons rsng out of thr ndvdulstc form of work. ch sought, to mxms hs own stndrd of lvng through hs ctvts on hs own plot of lnd. ndd, th only thng whch could now unt psnts nto cohrnt group ws opposton to th txs nd forcbl collctons of grn crrd out n ordr to fd th urbn popultons.

Th hgh pont of ths opposton cm wk bfor th Tnth Communst Prty Congrss n Mrch 1921. n uprsng of slors brok out n th Kronstdt fortrss, whch gurdd th pprochs to Ptrogrd. Mny popl snc hv trtd wht hppnd nxt s th frst brk btwn th Bolshvk rgm nd ts soclst ntntons. Th fct tht th Kronstdt slors wr on of th mn drvs of th 1917 rvoluton hs oftn bn usd s n rgumnt for ths. Yt t th tm no on n th Bolshvk Prty - not vn th workrs opposton whch clmd to rprsnt th ntpthy of mny workrs to th rgm - hd ny doubts s to wht t ws ncssry to do. Th rson ws smpl. Kronstdt n 1920 ws not Kronstdt of 1917. Th clss composton of ts Slors hd chngd. Th bst soclst lmnts hd long go gon off to fght n th rmy n th front ln. Thy wr rplcd n th mn by psnts whos dvoton to th rvoluton ws tht of thr clss. Ths ws rflctd n th dmnds of th uprsng: Sovts wthout Bolshvks nd fr mrkt n grcultur.

Th Bolshvk ldrs could not ccd to such dmnds. t would hv mnt lqudton of th soclst ms of th rvoluton wthout struggl. For ll ts fults, t ws prcsly th Bolshvk Prty tht hd lon wholhrtdly supportd sovt powr, whl th othr prts, vn th soclst prts, hd vclltd btwn t nd th Whts. t ws to th Bolshvks tht ll th bst mltnts hd bn ttchd. Sovts wthout Bolshvks could only mn Sovts wthout th prty whch hd consstntly sought to xprss th soclst, collctvst ms of th workng clss n th rvoluton.

Wht ws xprssd n Kronstdt ws th fundmntl dvrgnc of ntrst, n th long run, btwn th two clsss tht hd md th rvoluton. Th supprsson of th uprsng should b sn not s n ttck on th soclst contnt of th rvoluton, but s dsprt ttmpt, usng forc, to prvnt th dvlopng psnt opposton to ts collctvst nds from dstroyng t.

Yt th fct tht Kronstdt could occur ws n omn. For t qustond th whol ldng rol of th workng clss n th rvoluton. Ths ws bng mntnd not by th supror conomc mod tht th workng clss rprsntd, not by ts hghr lbour productvty nd collctvty, but by physcl forc. nd ths forc ws not bng wldd drctly by th rmd workrs, but by prty td to th workng clss only ndrctly, by ts ds, not drctly s n th dys of 1917.

Such polcy ws ncssry. But thr ws lttl n t tht soclsts could hv supportd n ny othr stuton. nstd of bng th slf-conscous, ndpndnt movmnt of th mmns mjorty n th ntrst of th mmns mjorty, th rvoluton n Russ hd rchd th stg whr t nvolvd th xplotton of th country by th towns, mntnd through nkd physcl forc. t ws clr to ll groups n th Bolshvk Prty tht ths mnt th rvoluton must rmn n dngr of bng ovrthrown by psnt nsurrctons.

Thr smd to b only on cours opn. Ths ws to ccpt mny of th psnt dmnds, whl mntnng strong, cntrlsd soclst stt pprtus. Ths th Nw conomc Polcy (NP) ttmptd to do. ts m ws to rconcl psnts to th rgm nd to ncourg conomc dvlopmnt by gvng lmtd rng of frdom to prvt commodty producton. Th stt nd th stt-ownd ndustrs wr to oprt s just on lmnt n n conomy govrnd by th nds of psnt producton nd th ply of mrkt forcs.


Th prty, th stt nd th workng clss 1921-28

n th prod of th NP th clm of Russ to b n ny wy soclst could no longr b justfd thr by th rltonshp of th workng clss to th stt t hd orgnlly crtd or by th ntur of ntrnl conomc rltons. Th workrs dd not xrcs powr nd th conomy ws not plnnd. But th stt, th body of rmd mn tht controlld nd polcd socty, ws n th hnds of prty tht ws motvtd by soclst ntntons. Th drcton of ts polcs, t smd, would b soclst.

Yt th stuton ws mor complx thn ths. Frst, th stt nsttutons tht domntd Russn socty wr fr from dntcl wth th mltnt soclst prty of 1917. Thos who hd bn n th Bolshvk Prty t th tm of th Fbrury rvoluton wr commttd soclsts who hd tkn normous rsks n rsstng Tsrst opprsson to xprss thr dls. vn four yrs of cvl wr nd solton from th workng msss could not sly dstroy thr soclst sprtons. But n 1919 ths consttutd only tnth of th prty, by 1922 fortth.

n th rvoluton nd cvl wr, th prty hd undrgon contnuous procss of growth. n prt ths rflctd th tndncy of ll mltnt workrs nd convncd soclsts to jon n. But t ws lso rsult of othr tndncs. Onc th workng clss tslf hd bn dcmtd, th prty hd hd to tk t upon tslf to control ll sovt-run rs. Ths t could only do by ncrsng ts own sz. Furthr, onc t ws clr who ws wnnng th cvl wr, mny ndvduls wth lttl or no soclst convctons ttmptd to ntr th prty. Th prty tslf ws thus fr from bng homognous soclst forc. t bst, only ts ldng lmnts nd most mltnt mmbrs could b sd to b rlly prt of th soclst trdton.

Ths ntrnl dluton of th prty ws prllld by corrspondng phnomnon n th stt pprtus tslf. n ordr to mntn control ovr Russn socty, th Bolshvk Prty hd bn forcd to us thousnds of mmbrs of th old Tsrst burucrcy n ordr to mntn functonng govrnmntl mchn, n thory th Bolshvks wr to drct th work of ths n soclst drcton. n prctc, old hbts nd mthods of work, pr-rvolutonry tttuds towrds th msss n prtculr, oftn prvld, Lnn ws cutly wr of th mplctons of ths; h told th Mrch 1922 prty congrss:

Wht w lck s clr nough. Th rulng strtum of th communsts s lckng n cultur. Lt us look t Moscow. Ths mss of burucrts - who s ldng whom? Th 4,700 rsponsbl communsts, th mss of burucrts, or th othr wy round? do not blv you cn honstly sy th communsts r ldng ths mss. To put t honstly, thy r not th ldrs but th ld.

t th nd of 1922, h dscrbd th stt pprtus s borrowd from Tsrsm nd hrdly touchd by th sovt world bourgos nd Tsrst mchnsm. n th 1920 controvrsy ovr th rol of th trd unons h rgud:

Ours s not ctully workrs stt, but workrs nd psnts stt But tht s not ll. Our prty progrmm shows tht ours s workrs stt wth burucrtc dstortons.

Th rl stuton ws vn wors thn ths. t ws not just th cs tht th old Bolshvks wr n stuton whr th combnd strngth of hostl clss forcs nd burucrtc nrtnss md thr soclst sprtons dffcult to rls. Ths sprtons thmslvs could not rmn forvr uncorruptd by th hostl nvronmnt. Th xgncs of buldng dscplnd rmy out of n oftn ndffrnt psnt mss hd nculctd nto mny of th bst prty mmbrs uthortrn hbts.

Undr th NP th stuton ws dffrnt, but stll fr from th dmocrtc ntrcton of ldrs nd ld tht consttuts th ssnc of soclst dmocrcy, Now mny prty mmbrs found thmslvs hvng to control socty by comng to trms wth th smll trdr, th ptty cptlst, th kulk. Thy hd to rprsnt th ntrsts of th workrs stt s gnst ths lmnts - but not s n th pst through drct physcl confrontton. Thr hd to b lmtd co-oprton wth thm. Mny prty mmbrs smd mor nfluncd by ths mmdt nd vry tngbl rltonshp wth ptty bourgos lmnts thn by thr ntngbl ts wth wk nd dmorlsd workng clss.

bov ll, th nflunc of th old burucrcy n whch ts mmbrs wr mmrsd pntrtd th prty. ts solton from clss forcs outsd tslf tht would sustn ts rul mnt tht th prty hd to xrt ovr tslf n ron dscpln. Thus t th tnth prty congrss, lthough t ws prsumd tht dscusson would contnu wthn th prty, th stblshmnt of forml fctons ws tmporrly bnnd. But ths dmnd for nnr cohson sly dgnrtd nto n ccptnc of burucrtc mods of control wthn th prty. Thr hd bn complnts bout ths by opposton lmnts n th prty s rly s prl 1920. By 1922 vn Lnn could wrt tht w hv burucrcy not only n th sovt nsttutons, but n th nsttutons of th prty.

Th roson of nnr-prty dmocrcy s bst shown by th ft of succssv oppostons to th cntrl ldrshp. n 1917 nd 1918 fr dscusson wthn th prty, wth th rght of dffrnt groups to orgns round pltforms, ws tkn for grntd. Lnn hmslf ws n mnorty n th prty on t lst two occsons (t th tm of hs prl Thss nd nrly yr ltr durng th Brst-Ltovsk ngottons). n Novmbr 1917 t ws possbl for thos Bolshvks who dsgrd wth th prty tkng powr lon, to rsgn from th govrnmnt so s to forc ts hnd, wthout dscplnry cton bng tkn gnst thn. Dvsons wthn th prty ovr th quston of th dvnc of th Rd rmy on Wrsw nd ovr th rol of th trd unons wr dscussd qut opnly n th prty prss. s lt s 1921 th Progrmm of th Workrs Opposton ws prntd n qurtr of mllon cops by th prty tslf, nd two mmbrs of th opposton lctd to th cntrl commtt, n 1923 whn th Lft Opposton dvlopd, t ws stll possbl for t to xprss ts vws n Prvd, lthough thr wr tn rtcls dfndng th ldrshp to vry on opposng t.

Yt throughout ths prod th possblts of ny opposton ctng ffctvly wr dmnshd. ftr th tnth prty congrss th Workrs Opposton ws bnnd. By 1923 th opposton Pltform of th 46 wrot tht th scrtrl hrrchy of th prty to n vr grtr xtnt rcruts th mmbrshp of confrncs nd congrsss. vn supportr of th ldrshp nd dtor of Prvd, Bukhrn, dpctd th typcl functonng of th prty s compltly undmocrtc:

th scrtrs of th nucl r usully ppontd by th dstrct commtts, nd not tht th dstrcts do not vn try to hv thr cnddts ccptd by ths nucl, but contnt thmslvs wth ppontng ths or thos comrds. s rul, puttng th mttr to vot tks plc ccordng to mthod tht s tkn for grntd. Th mtng s skd: Who s gnst? nd n s much s on frs mor or lss to spk up gnst, th ppontd cnddt fnds hmslf lctd

Th rl xtnt of burucrtston ws fully rvld whn th trumvrt, whch hd tkn ovr th ldrshp of th prty durng th llnss of Lnn, splt. Lnn dd n Jnury 1924. Towrds th nd of 1925 Znovv, Kmnv nd Krupsky movd nto opposton to th prty cntr, now controlld by Stln, Znovv ws hd of th prty n Lnngrd. s such h controlld th dmnstrtv mchn of th northrn cptl nd svrl nfluntl nwspprs. t th fourtnth prty congrss vry dlgt from Lnngrd supportd hs opposton to th cntr. Yt wthn wks of th dft of hs opposton, ll sctons of th prty n Lnngrd, wth th xcpton of fw hundrd nvtrt oppostonsts, wr votng rsolutons supportng Stlns polcs. ll tht ws rqurd to ccomplsh ths ws th rmovl from offc of th hds of th cty prty dmnstrton. Who controlld th burucrcy controlld th prty. Whn Znovv controlld t, t ws oppostonl. Now tht Stln hd ddd th cty to th nton-wd pprtus h controlld, t bcm n dhrnt of hs polcs. Wth chng of ldrs Znovvst monolth ws trnsformd nto Stlnst monolth.

Ths rs of burucrcy n th sovt pprtus nd th prty bgn s rsult of th dcmton of th workng clss n th cvl wr. But t contnud vn whn ndustry bgn to rcovr nd th workng clss bgn to grow wth th NP. conomc rcovry, rthr thn rsng th poston of th workng clss wthn th workrs stt, dprssd t.

n purly mtrl trms th concssons md to th psnt n th NP worsnd th (rltv) poston of th workr.

vrywhr cclmd undr wr communsm s th ponymous hro of th dcttorshp of th proltrt, h ws n dngr of bcomng th stp-chld of th NP. n th conomc crss of 1923 nthr th dfndrs of th offcl polcy nor thos who contstd t n th nm of th dvlopmnt of ndustry found t ncssry to trt th grvncs or th ntrsts of th ndustrl workr s mttr of mjor concrn.

But t ws not only vs-à-vs th psnt tht th sttus of th workr fll; t lso fll comprd wth tht of th drctors nd mngrs of ndustry. Whrs n 1922, 65 pr cnt of mngng prsonnl wr offclly clssfd s workrs, nd 35 pr cnt s non-workrs, yr ltr ths fgurs wr lmost rvrsd, only 36 pr cnt bng workrs nd 64 pr cnt non-workrs. Th rd ndustrlsts bgn to mrg s prvlgd group, wth hgh slrs, nd through on-mn mngmnt n th fctors, bl to hr nd fr t wll, t th sm tm wdsprd unmploymnt bcm ndmc to th conomy, rsng to lvl of on nd qurtr mllon n 1923-4.


Th dvsons n th prty 1921-29

Mn mk hstory, but n crcumstncs not of thr own mkng. n th procss thy chng both thos crcumstncs nd thmslvs. Th Bolshvk Prty ws no mor mmun to ths rlty thn ny othr group n hstory hs bn. n ttmptng to hold togthr th fbrc of Russn socty n th chos of cvl wr, countr-rvoluton nd fmn, thr soclst ntntons wr fctor dtrmnng th cours of hstory; but th socl forcs thy hd to work wth to do ths could not lv th prty mmbrs thmslvs unchngd.

Holdng th Russ of th NP togthr mnt mdtng btwn dffrnt socl clsss so s to prvnt dsruptv clshs. Th rvoluton could only survv f th prty nd stt stsfd th nds of dffrnt, oftn ntgonstc, clsss. rrngmnts hd to b md to stsfy th ndvdulstc sprtons of th psnts, s wll s th collctvst dmocrtc ms of soclsm. n th procss, th prty, whch hd bn lftd bov th dffrnt socl clsss, hd to rflct thr dffrncs wthn ts own structur. Th prssurs of th dffrnt clsss on th prty cusd dffrnt sctons of th prty to dfn thr soclst sprtons n trms of th ntrsts of dffrnt clsss. Th on clss wth th cpcty for xrcsng gnunly soclst prssurs - th workng clss - ws th wkst, th most dsorgnsd, th lst bl to xrt such prssurs.


Th Lft Opposton

Thr cn b no doubt tht n trms of ts ds, th Lft Opposton ws th fcton n th prty tht dhrd most closly to th rvolutonry soclst trdton of Bolshvsm. t rfusd to rdfn soclsm to mn thr slowly dvlopng psnt conomy or ccumulton for th sk of ccumulton. t rtnd th vw of workrs dmocrcy s cntrl to soclsm. t rfusd to subordnt th world rvoluton to th dmnds of th chuvnstc nd rctonry slogn of buldng soclsm n on country.

Yt th Lft Opposton could not b sd to b n ny drct sns th proltrn fcton wthn th prty. For n th Russ of th 1920s, th workng clss ws th clss tht lss thn ny othr xrtd prssur upon th prty. ftr th cvl wr, t ws rbult n condtons whch md ts blty to fght for ts own nds wk. Unmploymnt ws hgh; th most mltnt workrs hd thr dd n th cvl wr or bn lftd nto th burucrcy; much of th clss ws composd of psnts frsh from th countrysd. ts typcl tttud ws not on of support for th opposton, but rthr pthy towrds poltcl dscussons, whch md t sly mnpulbl from bov - t lst most of th tm. Th Lft Opposton ws n th stuton, common to soclsts, of hvng soclst progrmm for workng-clss cton whn th workrs thmslvs wr too trd nd dsprtd to fght.

But t ws not only th pthy of th workrs tht crtd dffcults for th opposton. t ws lso ts own rcognton of conomc rlts. ts rgumnt mphssd tht th objctv lck of rsourcs would mk lf hrd whtvr polcs wr followd. t strssd both th nd to dvlop ndustry ntrnlly nd th ncssty for th rvoluton to sprd ntrntonlly s mns to dong ths. But n th short trm, t could offr lttl to th workrs, vn f corrct soclst polcy ws followd. Whn Trotsky nd Probrzhnsky bgn to dmnd ncrsd plnnng, thy mphssd tht ths could not b don wthout squzng th psnts nd wthout th workrs mkng scrfcs. Th unfd opposton of Trotskysts nd Znovvsts n 1926 dmndd s frst prorty crtn mprovmnts for th workrs. But t ws lso rlstc nough to dnounc s utopn promss md to th workrs by Stln tht fr xcdd ts own dmnds.

Thr s no spc hr. to dscuss th vrous pltforms producd by th Lft Opposton. But n outln thy hd thr ntrlnkd cntrl plnks.

1. Th rvoluton could only mk progrss n soclst drcton f th conomc wght of th towns s gnst th country, of ndustry s gnst grcultur, ws ncrsd. Ths dmndd plnnng of ndustry nd polcy of dlbrtly dscrmntng gnst th wlthy psnt n txton polcy. f ths dd not hppn th lttr would ccumult suffcnt conomc powr to subordnt th stt to hs ntrsts, thus producng Thrmdor, n ntrnl countr-rvoluton.

2. Ths ndustrl dvlopmnt hd to b ccompnd by ncrsd workrs dmocrcy, so s to nd burucrtc tndncs n th prty nd stt.

3. Ths frst two polcs could mntn Russ s ctdl of th rvoluton, but thy could not produc tht mtrl nd culturl lvl tht s th prrqust of soclsm. Ths dmndd th xtnson of th rvoluton brod.

n purly conomc trms, thr ws nothng mpossbl n ths progrmm. ndd ts dmnd for plnnng of ndustrlston nd squzng of th psnts ws vntully crrd out - lthough n mnnr whch contrdctd th ntntons of th Opposton. But thos who controlld th prty from 1923 onwrds dd not s th wsdom of t. Only svr conomc crss n 1928 forcd thm to pln nd ndustrls. For fv yrs bfor ths thy prscutd th Lft nd xplld ts ldrs. Th scond plnk n th progrmm thy nvr mplmntd. s for th thrd plnk, ths hd bn Bolshvk orthodoxy n 1923, only to b rjctd by th prty ldrs for good n 1925.

t ws not conomcs tht prvntd th prty ccptng ths progrmm. t ws rthr th blnc of socl forcs dvlopng wthn th prty tslf. Th progrmm dmndd brk wy from tmpo of producton dtrmnd by th conomc prssur of th psntry. Two sorts of socl forcs hd dvlopd wthn th prty tht opposd ths.


Th Rght nd th Cntr

Th frst ws th smplst. Ths ws md up of thos lmnts who dd not s concssons to th psnt s bng dtrmntl to soclst constructon. Thy conscously wntd th prty to djust ts progrmm to th nds of th psnt. But ths ws not just thortcl pltform. t xprssd th ntrst of ll thos n th prty nd stt nsttutons who found co-oprton wth th psnts, ncludng th kulks nd cptlst frmrs, nd th prstc prvt trdrs who dvlopd undr NP, th Npmn, congnl. Thy found thr thortcl xprsson n Bukhrn, wth hs njuncton to th psnts to nrch thmslvs.

Th scond drw ts strngth s much from socl forcs wthn th prty s outsd. ts ostnsbl concrn ws to mntn socl cohson. s such t rsstd th socl tnsons lkly to b ngndrd f thr ws to b conscous ffort to subordnt th country to th town, but dd not go s fr n ts pro-psnt pronouncmnts s th Rght. n th mn, t ws consttutd by lmnts wthn th prty pprtus tslf, whos whol orntton ws to mntn prty cohson through burucrtc mns. ts ldr ws th chf of th prty pprtus, Stln.

To th Lft Opposton t th tm, th fcton of Stln smd lk cntrst group tht osclltd btwn th trdtons of th prty (mbodd n th Lft progrmm) nd th Rght. n 1928 whn Stln suddnly doptd th frst plnk of th oppostons own progrmm, turnng on th Rght s vcously s h hd only months bfor ttckd th Lft, nd bgnnng ndustrlston nd th complt xproprton of th psntry (so-clld collctvston), ths ntrprtton rcvd rud shock. Stln clrly hd socl bs of hs own. H could survv whn nthr th proltrt nor th psntry xrcsd powr.

f th Lft Opposton ws th rsult of groups motvtd by th soclst nd workng-clss trdtons of th prty ttmptng to mbody ths n rlstc polcs, nd th Rght opposton rsult of ccommodton to psnt prssurs on th prty, th succssful Stlnst fcton ws bsd upon th prty burucrcy tslf. Ths hd bgun lf s subordnt lmnt wthn th socl structur crtd by th rvoluton. t mrly fulflld crtn lmntry functons for th workrs prty.

Wth th dcmton of th workng clss n th cvl wr, th prty ws lft stndng bov th clss. n ths stuton th rol of mntnng th cohson of th prty nd stt bcm cntrl. ncrsngly n th stt nd thn n th prty, ths ws provdd by burucrtc mthods of control - oftn xrcsd by x-Tsrst offcls. Th prty pprtus ncrsngly xrcsd rl powr wthn th prty - ppontng functonrs t ll lvls, choosng dlgts to confrncs. But f t ws th prty nd not th clss tht controlld th stt nd ndustry, thn t ws th prty pprtus tht ncrsngly nhrtd th gns th workrs hd md n th rvoluton.

Th frst rsult of ths n trms of polcs ws burucrtc nrtnss. Th burucrts of th pprtus offrd ngtv rsstnc to polcs whch mght dsturb thr poston. Thy bgn to ct s rprssv forc gnst ny group tht mght chllng thr poston. Hnc thr opposton to th progrmms of th Lft nd thr rfusl to prmt ny rl dscusson of thm.

Whl th burucrcy rctd n ths ngtv wy to thrts of socl dsturbnc, t qut nturlly lld tslf wth th Rght nd Bukhrn. Ths concld ts ncrsng xstnc s socl ntty n ts own rght, wth ts own rltonshp to th mns of producton. ts rprsson of opposton n th prty smd to b n ttmpt to mpos pro-psnt polcy on th prty from bov, not to b prt of ts own struggl to rmov ny opposton to ts own powr n stt nd ndustry. vn ftr ts proclmton of soclsm n on country, ts flurs brod smd to flow mor from burucrtc nrt nd th pro-psnt polcs t hom thn from conscous countr-rvolutonry rol.

Yt throughout ths prod th burucrcy ws dvlopng from bng clss n tslf to bng clss for tslf. t th tm of th nugurton of th NP, t ws objctvly th cs tht powr n th prty nd stt ly n th hnds of smll group of functonrs. But ths wr by no mns cohsv rulng clss. Thy wr fr from bng wr of shrng common ntnt. Th polcs thy mplmntd wr shpd by lmnts n th prty stll strongly nfluncd by th trdtons of rvolutonry soclsm. f t hom objctv condtons md workrs dmocrcy nonxstnt, t lst thr ws th possblty of thos motvtd by th prtys trdtons brngng bout ts rstorton gvn ndustrl rcovry t hom nd rvoluton brod.

Crtnly on world scl th prty contnud to ply ts rvolutonry rol. n ts dvc to forgn prts t md mstks - nd no doubt som of ths flowd from ts own burucrtston - but t dd not commt crms by subordntng thm to ts own ntonl ntrsts. Undrlyng th fctonl struggls of th 1920s s th procss by whch ths socl groupng shook off th hrtg of th rvoluton to bcom slf-conscous clss n ts own rght.


t s oftn sd tht th rs of Stlnsm n Russ cnnot b clld countr-rvoluton bcus t ws grdul procss (for xmpl Trotsky sd tht such vw nvolvd wndng bck th flm of rformsm). But ths s to msconstru th Mrxst mthod. t s not th cs tht th trnston from on sort of socty to nothr lwys nvolvs sngl suddn chng. Ths s th cs for th trnston from cptlst stt to workrs stt, bcus th workng clss cnnot xrcs ts powr xcpt ll t onc, collctvly, by clsh wth th rulng clss n whch, s culmnton of long yrs of struggl, th lttrs forcs r dftd. But n th trnston from fudlsm to cptlsm thr r mny css n whch thr s not on suddn clsh, but whol srs of dffrnt ntnsts nd t dffrnt lvls, s th dcsv conomc clss (th bourgos) forcs poltcl concssons n ts fvour.

Th countr-rvoluton n Russ procdd long th scond pth rthr thn th frst. Th burucrcy dd not hv to sz powr from th workrs ll t onc. Th dcmton of th workng clss lft powr n ts hnds t ll lvls of Russn socty. ts mmbrs controlld ndustry nd th polc nd th rmy. t dd not vn hv to wrst control of th stt pprtus to brng t nto ln wth ts conomc powr, s th bourgos dd qut succssfully n svrl countrs wthout suddn confrontton. t mrly hd to brng poltcl nd ndustrl structur tht t lrdy controlld nto ln wth ts own ntrsts.

Ths hppnd not grdully, but by succsson of qulttv chngs by whch th mod of oprton of th prty ws brought nto ln wth th dmnds of th cntrl burucrcy. ch of ths qulttv chngs could only b brought bout by drct confrontton wth thos lmnts n th prty whch, for whtvr rson, stll dhrd to th rvolutonry soclst trdton.

Th frst (nd most mportnt) such confrontton ws tht wth th Lft Opposton n 1923. lthough th Opposton ws by no mns dcsvly nd unmbguously opposd to wht ws hppnng to th prty (for xmpl, ts ldr, Trotsky, hd md som of th most outrgously substtutonst sttmnts durng th trd-unon dbt of 1920; ts frst publc sttmnt - th Pltform of th 46 - ws ccptd by ts sgntors only wth numrous rsrvtons nd mndmnts), th burucrcy rctd to t wth unprcdntd hostlty.

n ordr to protct ts powr th rulng group n th prty rsortd to mthods of rgumnt unhrd of bfor n th Bolshvk Prty. Systmtc dngrton of opponnts rplcd rtonl rgumnt. Th control of th scrtrt of th prty ovr ppontmnts bgn to b usd for th frst tm opnly to rmov sympthsrs of th opposton from thr posts (for xmpl, th mjorty of th Komsomol youth orgnston cntrl commtt wr dsmssd nd snt to th provncs ftr som of thm hd rpld to ttcks on Trotsky).

To justfy such procdurs th rulng fcton nvntd two nw dologcl ntts, whch t countr-posd to on nothr. On th on hnd t nugurtd cult of Lnnsm (dspt th protsts of Lnns wdow). t ttmptd to lvt Lnn to sm-dvn sttus by mummfyng hs dd body n th mnnr of th gyptn phrohs. On th othr, t nvntd Trotskysm s tndncy opposd to Lnnsm, justfyng ths wth odd quottons from Lnn of tn or vn twnty yrs bfor, whl gnorng Lnns lst sttmnt (hs Tstmnt) tht rfrrd to Trotsky s th most bl mmbr of th cntrl commtt nd suggstd th rmovl of Stln.

Th ldrs of th prty prptrtd ths dstortons nd flsfctons conscously n ordr to fght off ny thrt to thr control of th prty (Znovv, t th tm th ldng mmbr of th trumvrt, ltr dmttd ths). n dong so, on scton of th prty ws showng tht t hd com to s ts own powr s mor mportnt thn th soclst trdton of fr nnr-prty dscusson. By rducng thory to mr djunct of ts own mbtons, th prty burucrcy ws bgnnng to ssrt ts dntty s gnst othr socl groups.

Th scond mjor confrontton bgn n dffrnt wy. t ws not t frst clsh btwn mmbrs of th prty wth soclst sprtons nd th ncrsngly powrful burucrcy tslf. t bgn s clsh btwn th ostnsbl ldr of th prty (t th tm, Znovv) nd th prty pprtus tht rlly controlld. n Lnngrd Znovv controlld scton of th burucrcy to consdrbl xtnt ndpndntly of th rst of th pprtus. lthough ts mod of oprton ws n no wy dffrnt from tht prvlng throughout th rst of th country, ts vry ndpndnc ws n obstcl to th cntrl burucrcy. t rprsntd possbl sourc of polcs nd ctvts tht mght dsturb th ovrll rul of th burucrcy. For ths rson t hd to b brought wthn th mbt of th cntrl pprtus.

n th procss Znovv ws forcd from hs ldng poston n th prty. Hvng lost ths; h bgn to turn onc mor to th hstorcl trdtons of Bolshvsm nd to th polcs of th Lft (lthough h nvr lost fully hs dsr to b prt of th rulng bloc, contnully wvrng for th nxt tn yrs btwn th Lft nd th pprtus).

Wth th fll of Znovv, powr ly n th hnds of Stln, who wth hs unrstrnd us of burucrtc mthods of control of th prty, hs dsrgrd for thory, hs hostlty to th trdtons of th rvoluton n whch hs own rol hd bn mnor on, hs wllngnss to rsort to ny mns to dspos of thos who hd ctully ld th rvoluton, bov ll ptomsd th growng slf-conscousnss of th pprtus.

ll ths qults h xhbtd to thr full xtnt n th struggl gnst th nw opposton. Mtngs wr pckd, spkrs shoutd down, promnnt oppostonsts lkly to fnd thmslvs ssgnd to mnor postons n rmot rs, formr Tsrst offcrs utlsd s gnts provocturs to dscrdt oppostonl groups. vntully, n 1928, Stln bgn to mtt th Tsrs drctly nd dport rvolutonrs to Sbr. n th long run, vn ths ws not to b nough. H ws to do wht vn th Romnoffs hd bn unbl to do: systmtclly murdr thos who hd consttutd th rvolutonry prty of 1917.

By 1928 th Stlnst fcton hd compltly consoldtd ts control n th prty nd stt. Whn Bukhrn nd th rght wng splt from t, horrfd by wht thy hd hlpd to crt, thy found thmslvs wth vn lss strngth thn th Lft Oppostons hd.

But th prty ws not n control of th whol of Russn socty. Th towns, whr rl powr ly, wr stll surroundd by th s of psnt producton. Th burucrcy hd usurpd th gns of th workng clss n th rvoluton, but so fr th psntry rmnd unffctd. mss rfusl of th psnts to sll thr grn n 1928 brought ths hom shrply to th burucrcy.

Wht followd ws th ssrton of th powr of th towns ovr th countrysd tht th Lft Opposton hd bn dmndng for yrs. Ths ld crtn oppostonsts (Probrzhnsky nd Rdk, for xmpl) to mk thr pc wth Stln. Yt ths polcy ws n ts sprt th oppost of tht of th Lft, Thy hd rgud th nd to subordnt psnt producton to workr-ownd ndustry n th towns. But ndustry n th towns ws no longr workr-ownd. t ws undr th control of th burucrcy tht hld th stt. ssrton of th domnton of th town ovr th country ws now th ssrton not of th workng clss ovr th psntry, but of th burucrcy ovr th lst prt of socty lyng outsd ts control.

t mposd ths domnnc wth ll th frocty rulng clssd hv lwys usd. Not only kulks, but ll grds of psnts, whol vllgs of psnts, suffrd. Th Lft turn of 1928 fnlly lqudtd th rvoluton of 1917 n town nd country.

Thr cn b no doubt tht by .1928 nw clss hd tkn powr n Russ. t dd not hv to ngg n drct mltry conflct wth th workrs to gn powr, bcus drct workrs powr hd not xstd snc 1918, But t dd hv to purg th prty, whch hd bn lft n powr, of ll thos who rtnd lnks, howvr tnuous, wth th soclst trdton. Whn r-nvgortd workng clss confrontd t gn, whthr n Brln or Budpst n th 1950s, or n Russ tslf (for xmpl t Novo-Chrkssk n 1962), t usd th tnks t hd not ndd n 1928.

Th Lft Opposton ws fr from clr bout wht t ws fghtng. Trotsky, to hs dyng dy, blvd tht th pprtus tht ws to hunt hm down nd murdr hm ws dgnrtd workrs stt. Yt t ws tht Opposton lon whch fought dy by dy gnst th dstructon by th Stlnst pprtus of th rvoluton t hom nd prvnton of rvoluton brod. For whol hstorcl prod t lon rsstd th dstortng ffcts on th soclst movmnt of Stlnsm nd Socl Dmocrcy. ts own thors bout Russ md ths tsk mor dffcult, but t stll crrd t out. Tht s why tody ny gnunly rvolutonry movmnt must plc tslf n tht trdton.